*extracted from the documentation of the SFS disk block encryption tool, with
permission of the author; conversion to HTML mine.*

When a block cipher is converted to handle units of data larger than its intrinsic block size, a number of weaknesses can be introduced, depending on the mode of operation which is chosen for the block cipher. For example, if two identical ciphertext blocks are present in different locations in a file, this may be used to determine the plaintext. If we can find two identical blocks of ciphertext when cipher block chaining (CBC) is used, then we know that:

P[ i ] = d( C[ i ] ) ^ C[ i-1 ] P[ j ] = d( C[ j ] ) ^ C[ j-1 ]

where C is the ciphertext, P is the plaintext, and e() and d() are encryption and decryption respectively. Now if C[ i ] = C[ j ], then d( C[ i ] ) = d( C[ j ] ), which cancel out when xor'd so that:

P[ i ] ^ C[ i-1 ] = P[ j ] ^ C[ j-1 ]

or:

P[ j ] = P[ i ] ^ C[ i-1 ] ^ C[ j-1 ]

Knowing C[ i ] and C[ j ] we can determine P[ i ] and P[ j ], and knowing either P[ i ] or P[ j ] we can determine the other.

Something similar holds when cipher feedback (CFB) mode is used, except that now the decryption operation is:

P[ i ] = e( C[ i-1 ] ) ^ C[ i ] P[ j ] = e( C[ j-1 ] ) ^ C[ j ]

Now if C[ i ] = C[ j ] then e( C[ i ] ) = e( C[ j ] ) (recall that in CFB mode the block cipher is only ever used for encryption), so that they again cancel out, so:

P[ i ] ^ e( C[ i-1 ] ) = P[ j ] ^ e( C[ j-1 ] )

or:

P[ i ] = P[ j ] ^ e( C[ i-1 ] ) ^ e( C[ j-1 ] )

In general this problem is of little consequence since the probability of finding two equal blocks of ciphertext when using a 160-bit block cipher on a dataset of any practical size is negligible. More esoteric modes of operation such as plaintext feedback (PFB) and ones whose acronyms have more letters than Welsh place names tend to have their own special problems and aren't considered here.

The problem does become serious, however, in the case of sector-level encryption, where the initialization vector cannot be varied. Although the IV may be unique for each sector, it remains constant unless special measures such as reserving extra storage for sector IV's which are updated with each sector write are taken. If a sector is read from disk, a small change made to part of it (for example changing a word in a text file), and the sector written out to disk again, several unchanged ciphertext/plaintext pairs will be present, allowing the above attack to be applied. However, there are cases in which this can be a problem. For example, running a program such as a disk defragmenter will rewrite a large number of sectors while leaving the IV unchanged, allowing an opponent access to large quantities of XOR'd plaintext blocks simply by recording the disk contents before and after the defragmentation process. Normally this problem would be avoided by using a different IV for each encrypted message, but most disk systems don't have the room to store an entire sectors worth of data as well as the IV needed to en/decrypt it.

An additional disadvantage of the CFB encryption mode is that the data in the last block of a dataset may be altered by an attacker to give different plaintext without it affecting the rest of the block, since the altered ciphertext in the last block never enters the feedback loop. This type of attack requires that an opponent possess at least two copies of the ciphertext, and that they differ only in the contents of the last block. In this case the last ciphertext block from one copy can be subsituted for the last ciphertext block in the other copy, allowing a subtle form of message modification attack. In fact in combination with the previously mentioned weakness of CFB, an attacker can determine the XOR of the plaintexts in the last block and substitute an arbitrary piece of "encrypted" plaintext to replace the existing data.

There are several approaches to tackling this problem. The most simplistic one is to permute the plaintext in a key-dependant manner before encryption and after decryption. This solution is unsatisfactory as it simply shuffles the data around without necessarily affecting any particular plaintext or ciphertext block. The desired goal of a change in any part of the plaintext affecting the entire dataset is not achieved.

A better solution is to encrypt data twice, once from front to back and then from back to front[1]. The front-to-back pass propagates any dependencies to the back of the dataset, and the back-to-front pass propagates dependencies back to the front again. In this way a single change in any part of the plaintext affects the entire dataset. The disadvantage of this approach is that it at least halves the speed of the encryption, as all data must be encrypted twice. If the encryption is done in software, this may create an unacceptable loss of throughput. Even with hardware assistance there is a noticeable slowdown, as no hardware implementations easily support backwards encryption, requiring the data to be reversed in software before the second pass is possible.

The best solution is probably to use a word-wise scrambler polynomial like the one used in SHA. With a block of plaintext P this is:

P[ i ] ^= P[ i-K1 ] ^ P[ i-K2 ]

with suitable values for the constants K1 and K2. If K2 is chosen to be 5 (the SHA block size in words) then the initial values of the 5 words (which can be thought of as as P[ -5 ]...P[ -1 ]) are simply the sectorIV. The value of K1 is arbitrary, SFS uses a value of 4.

This technique is used by first setting the initial values of the 5 words to the sectorIV. The scrambler function is then run over the entire data block, propagating all dependencies to the last 5 words in the block. These last 5 words are then used as the IV for the CFB encryption of the entire block. In this way the encryption IV depends on all the bits in the block, and the scrambling does a moderately good job of breaking up statistical patterns in the plaintext. No information is lost, so no randomness in the sectorIV is misplaced.

This also provides resistance to the selective-modification attack which allows an attacker to change selected bits in the last block of a CFB-encrypted dataset without damage. By destroying the IV used in the CFB encryption, the first block is completely corrupted, which is unlikely to go unnoticed.

To decrypt a dataset encrypted in this manner, the first 5 words of ciphertext are shifted into the feedback path, and the remainder of the dataset is decrypted in the standard manner. The last 5 decrypted words are then used as the IV to decrypt the first encrypted block. Finally, the scrambler is run over the recovered plaintext to undo the changes made during the encryption scrambling.

The overall en/decryption process used by SFS, in the case of 512-byte sectors and 32-bit words (so that each sector contains 128 words), is:

Encryption: using sectorIV[ 0 ]...sectorIV[ 4 ] as the scrambler IV scramble data[ 0 ]...data[ 127 ] using data[ 127-5 ]...data[ 127-1 ] as the encryption IV encrypt data[ 0 ]...data[ 127 ] Decryption: using data[ 0 ]...data[ 4 ] as the encryption IV decrypt data[ 5 ]...data[ 127 ] using data[ 127-5 ]...data[ 127-1 ] as the encryption IV decrypt data[ 0 ]...data[ 4 ] using sectorIV[ 0 ]...sectorIV[ 4 ] as the scrambler IV scramble data[ 0 ]...data[ 127 ]

where the scrambling operation is:

data[ i ] ^= data[ i-4 ] ^ data[ i-5 ]

as outlined above. Note that the i-4 and i-5 th values referred to here are the original, scrambled values, not the descrambled values. The easiest way to implement this is to cache the last 5 scrambled values and cyclically overwrite them as each word in the data buffer is processed.

Footnote [1]: To be precise, you need some sort of feedback from the end of a block on the first encryption pass to the start of the block on the next encryption pass. A block can be encrypted forwards twice as long as the IV is wrapped back to the start of the block for the second encryption pass.